In-text citations are superscript and numbered in consecutive order in the text, tables, or figures of the work. If a reference is used multiple times in one paper, use the same number throughout.
The Superscript number is inserted:
You may use author names in your text, as long as these mentions are accompanied by numbered citations. Use last names only. For items with one or two authors, include both names. For items with 3 or more authors, include the first author's surname and then 'et al' or 'and colleagues'.
At the end of the document, include a reference list with full citations to each item. Name it References. Order citations as they appear in your paper (not alphabetically!). The following tabs in this guide provide formatting information for common reference types.
* Adapted from https://guides.lib.uw.edu/hsl/ama and AMA Manual of Style
How to Format Reference from Books and Ebooks
Basic Format - General
Author AA. Title of Book. Edition number. Location: Publisher; Year published.
Basic Format - Edited Book (chapters with different authors)
Author AA. Chapter title. Editor, AA. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher; Year published: Page numbers.
Ex. Single Author Print Book
Herr J. Creative Resources for the Early Childhood Classroom. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth & Cengage Learning; 2013.
Ex. Chapter in a Print Book
Yagyu S, Iehara T. MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma: Detection of tumor-derived cell-free DNA in serum for predicting prognosis of neuroblastoma. In Hayat MA, ed. Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis. Dordrecht, NY: Springer; 2013:11-17.
Ex. Part of a Monographic Series Print Book
Davidoff RA. Migraine: Manifestations, Pathogenesis, and Management. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis; 1995. Contemporary Neurology Series; No 42.
Ex. Online Book
Neinstein L, ed. Adolescent Health Care. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott W&W; 2008. Accessed November 9, 2011. http://www.r2library.com/marc_frame.aspx?ResourceID=931
Ex. Chapter in an Online Book
Kohn LT. Creating safety systems in health care organizations. In: Kohn, LT, Corrigan, JM, and Donaldson MS, eds. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine; 2000. Accessed November 1, 2011. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.ptp?record_id=9728&page=155
Personal Communication - References to material not yet accepted for publication or to personal communications (oral, written, and electronic) are not acceptable as listed references and instead should be included parenthetically in the text. The author should provide the date of the communication, as well as the form (oral or written). Highest academic degree to date should also be mentioned.
Ex. In a conversation with Bart Simpson, Ph.D., (November 2004)...
Ex. According to an e-mail from Bull Winkle, Esq, (B. Winkle [email@example.com], e-mail, November 6, 2004)...
Preprint (Ahead of Print)
Ex. van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus [published online ahead of print March 21, 2004]. Nat Med
Material accepted for publication but not yet published
Ex. Carrau RI. The impact of laryngopharyngeal reflux on patient-reported QOL. Laryngoscope. In press.
Government or Agency Bulletins - References to bulletins published by departments or agencies of a government should include the following information, in the order indicated:
(1) name of author (if given); (2) title of bulletin; (3) place of publication; (4) name of issuing bureau, agency, department, or other governmental division (not that in this position, Department should be abbreviated Dept; also not that if an author supplies US Government Printing Office as the publisher, it would be preferable to obtain the name of the issuing bureau, agency, or department, if possible); (5) date of publication; (6) page numbers, if specified; (7) publication number, if any; and (8) series number if given.
Ex. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 75: Management of alloimmunization during pregnancy. Bethesda, MD: The National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2006. 457-464.
Ex. Amoxicillin. In:DRUGDEX System (Micromedex 2.0). Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics; c1974-2013. Accessed October 22, 2013. http://www.micromedexsolutions.com/micromedex2/librarian#
Package Inserts - Package inserts (the printed material about the use and effects of the product contained in the package) may be cited as follows:
Ex. BioThrax [package insert]. Lansing, MI: Emergent BioSolutions; 2012
Theses or Dissertations
Ex. MacKenzie MA. Comparing Heart Failure and Cancer Caregiver Satisfaction with Hospice Care. [dissertation]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2014.
Websites - When citing data from a Website, include the following elements, if available, in the order shown below:
Author(s), if given (often, no authors are given). Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Website. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date]. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]
Ex. Living With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes.org. Published February 9, 2015. Accessed April 7, 2015. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/recently-diagnosed/living-with-type-1-diabetes.html
If you (student) are going to recreate/reproduce an image, table or figure from another source and insert it verbatim (exactly as is) into you assignment paper, you do not have to obtain copyright permission from the copyright holder; however, you still have to cite the source. If you are submitting the paper for publications and recreate/reproduce the table or figure, you would need to obtain copyright permissions first.
Images, tables or figures from books or journal articles: Do not cite the image individually but give the citation details for the book/article/etc. Treat it as though it was a direct quote. See 3.11 References to Journal Articles in the AMA Style Guide and the AMA Style blog "How to cite a photograph or illustration."
Ex. Table 14.14-12. Antigens and antibodies of hepatitis B virus.
In: Christiansen S, Iverson C, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style:
A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. Oxford University Press; 2020.
Accessed August 20, 2020. https://www.amamanualofstyle.com/view/
Images, tables or figures found online: cite them as a web object:
Author AA, Author BB. Title of page or object. Clarifying information if necessary. Title of web site. Published Month DD, YYYY or Updated Month DD, YYYY. Accessed Month, DD, YYYY. URL. See 3.15.3 Websites in the AMA Style Guide.
If there is a credit for the image found online, use this as your author. If there is no credit for the image, use the authors of the web site if you believe they are responsible for the image.
Ex. AU Libraries. Data Life Cycle Models. Infographic. University
of Alabama. Accessed September 29, 2021. https://www.lib.