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In-text Citations

An in-text citation needs to be included when a borrowed idea is used in a paper. The in-text citation provides just enough to tell the reader which source it is from on the reference page. Ideas can be introduced in different ways, within a papers body. Below you will find examples of what an in-text citation looks like for direct quotations and paraphrases. You will notice that both are very similar to you each other.  


Direct Quotations: 

Parenthetical: (Author's last name, year, p. #)
     ex: (Johnson, 2012, p. 45) 

Attribution: Author's last name (year) "quote" (p. #) 
     ex: According to Johnson (2012) "direct quotation included" (p.45). 

Example:

Parenthetical: 
"Advertising really began to increase in the 19th century with the advent of the industrial age.  Populations increased, and more and more products came on the market" (Ferguson, 2016, p. 51).  

Attribution: 
According to Ferguson (2016) "advertising really began to increase in the 19th century with the advent of the industrial age. Populations increased, and more and more products came on the market" (p. 51).


Paraphrase: 

Parenthetical: (Author's last name, year)
     (Ferguson, 2016)

Attribution: Author's last name (year) paraphrased idea
     According to Ferguson (2016) paraphrased idea. 

Example:

Parenthetical: 
As goods became more readily available for purchase during the industrial age, producers really began to increase their advertising to the masses (Ferguson, 2016). 

Attribution: 
Ferguson (2016) states that as goods became more readily available for purchase during the industrial age, producers really began to increase their advertising to the masses.


Have more than one author? APA Specific Rules

Type of Citation First Citation Subsequent Citations
One work with two authors Sachs and Walker (2011)
(Sachs & Walker, 2011)
Same as the first citation
One work with three - five authors Johnson, Alan, and Davis (2012)
(Johnson, Alan, & Davis, 2012) 
                                                                   
The first author & year are listed
Johnson et al. (2012)
(Johnson et al., 2012)                            
Six or more authors The first author and year are listed: (Johnson et al., 2012)